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Abdul Wahab Yousafzai
Muhammad Naim Siddiqui


Objective: To estimate the level of low-self esteem in index depressed patients and compare them with

their first-degree relatives to determine low self esteem as a risk factor for depression.

Material and Methods: This case control study (150 cases and 150 controls) was conducted on adult

depressed patients (cases) and their healthy first-degree relatives (controls) attending psychiatric out

patients' clinic of the Aga Khan University Hospital from April 1, 2005 to September 1, 2005. We used

convenient method of sampling. Self-esteem was measured by Urdu version of Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.

Logistic regression was applied for multivariate analysis.

Results: Out of 300 (169 males, 131 females) participants, 216(75%) were married. Cases and controls

were fairly matched on socio demographic variables except on marital status, educational level and

monthly income that showed significant difference. Main logistic regression shows that depressed patients

had significantly lower self esteem than non depressed population (OR= 8.05, 95%CI -3.5-14; p=0.001).

Male gender had lower self-esteem. (OR=3.50, p=0.005). Self-esteem increased with advancing age. Age

group 55-65 had the highest level of self-esteem (OR, .45.CI, 3-4.2, p=0.005). Undergraduates had

significantly lower level of self-esteem. (OR 2, CI.03-1.18, p =0.005). Depressed patients, having the

illness for more than one year, were 2.75 times more likely to have lower self-esteem. (OR, 2.75, CI, .97-

2.5, p= 0.001).

Conclusion: Association of depression and low self esteem as a state was replicated. Duration of illness

and male gender were significantly associated with low self-esteem.

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How to Cite
Yousafzai AW, Siddiqui MN. ASSOCIATION OF LOWER SELF ESTEEM WITH DEPRESSION: A CASE CONTROL STUDY. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2011 Aug. 12 [cited 2022 Aug. 10];21(3). Available from:
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