Main Article Content

Abdul Salam Wazir
Muhammad Younas
Ahsan Beg
Touseef Asma Chawdry
Nadeem Sadiq


Objective: To see the frequency of pulmonary artery abnormalities and other
associated cardiac anomalies in patients of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. All patients of TOF
who underwent angiographic study for the diagnosis of pulmonary artery malformations
and other associated cardiac defects from January 2014 to June
2016 were selected for this study. MS Excel 2013 software was used for data
compilation and analysis. Percentages and mean±SD were used to present
qualitative and quantitative variables respectively.
Results: Out of 209 patients, 142 (67.9%) were male and 67 (32.1%) female.
Mean age of the patients at the time of presentation was 7.65 ±5.84 years.
Left pulmonary artery stenosis was the most common abnormality present in
27 (12.9%) patients, main pulmonary artery hypoplasia in 19 (9.1%), and right
pulmonary artery hypoplasia in 6 (2.9%) patients. Absent pulmonary valve syndrome
along with TOF was diagnosed in 2 (0.95%) patients. Associated cardiac
defects were present in 82 (39.2%) patients, right aortic arch was the most common lesion presented in 36 (17.2%) patients, major aorto-pulmonary collaterals in 15 (7.2%), bilateral superior vena cava (SVC) in 10 (4.8%) and patent ductus arteriosus in 6 (2.9%) patients. Coronary artery abnormalities were diagnosed in 6 (2.9%) patients. Additional VSD was diagnosed in 4 (1.9%) patients and double aortic arch in 1(0.47%) patients. There was one patient with complete
absence of IVC with azygous continuation.

Conclusion: Left pulmonary artery origin stenosis and main pulmonary artery
hypoplasia were most common pulmonary artery abnormalities. Right aortic
arch and major aorto-pulmonary collaterals were most common associated
cardiac abnormalities in TOF patients.

Article Details

How to Cite
Wazir AS, Younas M, Beg A, Asma Chawdry T, Sadiq N. PULMONARY ARTERY VARIANTS AND ASSOCIATED CARDIAC DEFECTS IN TETRALOGY OF FALLOT. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2017 Dec. 9 [cited 2024 Jun. 13];31(4). Available from: https://www.jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/2114
Original Article
Author Biographies

Abdul Salam Wazir, Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan

Fellow Paeds Cardiology

Muhammad Younas, Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan

Associate Professor Peads Cardiology

Ahsan Beg, Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan

Assistant Professor Peads Cardiology

Touseef Asma Chawdry, Ch. Pervaiz Elahi Institute of Cardiology Multan

Senior Registrar Peads Cardiology

Nadeem Sadiq, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Disease, Rawalpindi

Classified Paediatric Cardiologist