SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

Main Article Content

Sadaf Razzak
Maha Noor
Zainub Abbas
Malaika Iqbal Paracha
Rabab Parvez

Abstract

Objectives: To find out the frequency of self-medication among medical students, specifically during the onset ofbCOVID-19 symptoms or after a positive test.
Methodology: The present study was conducted on medical students of a public university with the cross sectionalbtype of research. This study was conducted from July 2021 to September 2021. With a sample size of 358bcalculated via Open Epi, data was collected using an online questionnaire via Google Forms after obtaining ethicalbapproval. Demographic details and responses were gathered anonymously. All data were entered into SPSS versionb20 for analysis purposes. Data were presented in the form of proportion and means with standard deviation.
Results: Over-all 363 students were registered in the study with 320 (88.2%) respondents being female. Mean age of the study cases were 21±2.5 years. Among study cases, 166 (45.7%) students, self-medicated with widely used medicines. Out of these 166, analgesics/antipyretics were the most frequently used class of medication (n=79, 47.59%), followed by antacids (n=35, 21.08%), antibiotics (n=28; 16.86%), and anti-allergic medications (n=24, 14.45%). The common antibiotics used in self-medication among the 28, were amoxicillin (n=11 39.28%)
and azithromycin (n=8, 28.57%).
Conclusion: Nearly half of the participants self-medicated, with analgesics/antipyretics being the most commonly used medications. Among antibiotics, amoxicillin and azithromycin were prominently used antibiotics.


 

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Razzak S, Noor M, Abbas Z, Iqbal Paracha M, Parvez R. SELF-MEDICATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2024 May 8 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];38(2):106-10. Available from: https://www.jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/3320
Section
Original Article

References

Ismail Z, Mohan A, Ngendahayo C, Aborode AT, Abid A, dos Santos Costa AC, et al. Self-Medication in Africa during COVID-19 Pandemic. Innov Pharm. 2021;12(4):1-4. DOI: 10.24926/iip.v12i4.4234.

Haque M, Rahman NAA, McKimm J, Kibria GM, Azim Majumder MA, Haque SZ, et al. Self-medication of antibiotics: investigating practice among university students at the Malaysian National Defence University. Infect Drug Resist. 2019:1333-1351. DOI: 10.46542/pe.2021.212.152162.

Mandal NK, Rauniyar GP, Rai DS, Panday DR, Kushwaha RP, Agrawal SK, et al. Self-medication practice of antibiotics among medical and dental undergraduate students in a medical college in Eastern Nepal: A descriptive cross-sectional study. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2020;58(225):328. DOI: 10.31729/jnma.4914.

Faqihi A, Sayed S, editors. Self-medication practice with analgesics (NSAIDs and acetaminophen), and antibiotics among nursing undergraduates in University College Farasan Campus, Jazan University, KSA. Ann Pharm Fr. 2021:Elsevier. DOI: 10.53075/Ijmsirq/65887895473577557.

Khatony A, Soroush A, Andayeshgar B, Abdi A. Nursing students’ perceived consequences of self-medication: a qualitative study. BMC Nurs. 2020;19:1-7. DOI: 10.1186/s12912-020-00460-8.

Elong Ekambi G-A, Okalla Ebongue C, Penda IC, Nnanga Nga E, Mpondo Mpondo E, Eboumbou Moukoko CE. Knowledge, practices and attitudes on antibiotics use in Cameroon: Self-medication and prescription survey among children, adolescents and adults in private pharmacies. PloS one. 2019; 14 (2): e0212875: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0212875.

Janatolmakan M, Abdi A, Andayeshgar B, Soroush A, Khatony A. The Reasons for Self-Medication from the Perspective of Iranian Nursing Students: A Qualitative Study. Nurs Res Pract. 2022; 2960768. DOI: 0.1155/2022/2960768.

Baracaldo-Santamaría D, Pabón-Londoño S, Rojas-Rodriguez LC. Drug safety of frequently used drugs and substances for self-medication in COVID-19. Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2022;13:DOI: 10.1177/204209862210941.

Paudel S, Aryal B. Exploration of self-medication practice in Pokhara valley of Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):714. DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08846-9.

Khadka A, Kafle KK. Prevalence of Self-medication among MBBS students of a Medical College in Kathmandu. J Nepal Med Assoc. 2020; 58 (222): 69.

Yasmin F, Asghar MS, Naeem U, Najeeb H, Nauman H, Ahsan MN, et al. Self-medication practices in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional analysis. Front Public Health.2022;10. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.803937.

Subashini N, Udayanga L. Demographic, socio-economic and other associated risk factors for self-medication behaviour among university students of Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study. BMC public health. 2020; 20: 1- 13: DOI: 10.1186/s12889-020-08622-8.

Azhar H, Tauseef A, Usman T, Azhar Y, Ahmed M, Umer K, et al. Prevalence, attitude and knowledge of self-medication during Covid-19 disease pandemic. Pak J Med Health Sci. 2021;15:902-5.

Gillani AH, Chang J, Aslam F, Saeed A, Shukar S, Khanum F, et al. Public knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding antibiotics use in Punjab, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2021; 19 (3): 399- 411. DOI: 10.1080/14787210.2021.1823216

Elmahi OK, Musa RA, Shareef AA, Omer ME, Elmahi MA, Altamih RA, Mohamed RI, Alsadig TF. Perception and practice of self-medication with antibiotics among medical students in Sudanese universities: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2022;17(1):e0263067. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263067.

Lukovic JA, Miletic V, Pekmezovic T, Trajkovic G, Ratkovic N, Aleksic D, Grgurevic A. Self-medication practices and risk factors for self-medication among medical students in Belgrade, Serbia. PloS One. 2014;9(12):e114644: DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114644.

Barros GAMd, Calonego MAM, Mendes RF, Castro RA, Faria JF, Trivellato SA, et al. The use of analgesics and risk of self-medication in an urban population sample: cross-sectional study. Rev. Bras. Anestesiol. 2020; 69: 529- 36.

Almohammed BA. Frequency and Knowledge of Analgesics Self-Use and Their Adverse Effects in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Cureus. 2023; 15 (1). DOI: 10.12345/cureus.12345.

Amoabeng IA, Otoo BA, Darko G, Borquaye LS. Disposal of unused and expired medicines within the sunyani municipality of Ghana: A cross-sectional survey. J. Environ. Public Health. 2022; 6113346. DOI: 10.1155/2022/6113346.

Malla B, Deepti K. Knowledge, attitude and practice of over-the-counter drug among undergraduate medical students-a cross sectional study. J. Gandaki Med. Coll. Nepal. 2021; 14 (2):153- 9.

Hashemzaei M, Afshari M, Koohkan Z, Bazi A, Rezaee R, Tabrizian K. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of pharmacy and medical students regarding self-medication, a study in Zabol University of Medical Sciences; Sistan and Baluchestan province in south-east of Iran. BMC Med Edu. 2021; 21(1):1- 10. DOU: 10.1186/s12909-020-02374-0.

Ajibola O, Omisakin OA, Eze AA, Omoleke SA. Self-medication with antibiotics, attitude and knowledge of antibiotic resistance among community residents and undergraduate students in Northwest Nigeria. Diseases. 2018;6(2):32. DOI: 10.3390/diseases6020032 .

Barkus A, Lisauskiene I. Inappropriate habits of antibiotic use among medical specialists and students in Vilnius. Acta Medica Lituanica. 2016;23(2):135-41. DOI: 10.6001/actamedica.v23i2.3330.

Iqbal S, Begum F, Qasim M. Screening, Characterization and Optimization of Bioactive Peptides with Antibacterial Activities Against Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens, Produced by Bacillus safensis Strain MK-12.1. Int J Pept Res Ther. 2022;28(6):161. DOI: 10.1007/s10989-022-10469-z.

Bonten M. Lowbury Lecture 2021: tales of the unexpected in antibiotic resistance. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2022;123:139- 42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhin.2022.02.019.

Pulingam T, Parumasivam T, Gazzali AM, Sulaiman AM, Chee JY, Lakshmanan M, et al. Antimicrobial resistance: prevalence, economic burden, mechanisms of resistance and strategies to overcome. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2022;170:106103. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2021.106103.