Main Article Content

Muhammad Ali
Mifra Rauf Sethi
Muhammad Irfan



Objective: To find out the effect of media influence on perception of body image and eating attitude in students of medical and dental institutes of Peshawar-Pakistan.

Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at medical and dental institutes of Peshawar, Pakistan from January to March 2019. All students from 1st year to final year were invited to complete Body Image States Scale (BISS), Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) and Socio-cultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SA­TAQ-3), along with providing demographic data on a semi structured proforma. The data was analyzed using SPSS-25, with Chi-square test and Pearson correlation test used as tests of significance.

Results: The mean age of the sample (n=908) was 20.84+1.7 years. There were 529 (58.3%) females, most of the sample was collected from Private sector (n=841, 92.6%) and from first year (n=289, 31.8%). The Cron­bach’s Alpha Reliability of BISS in our study was 0.866, 0.834 for EAT-26 and 0.888 for SATAQ-3. According to the responses, there were 430 (47.4%) students having issues of body image, 387 (42.6%) had problems with eating attitude and 502 (53.3%) students were more influenced by the media. The Pearson correlation showed that body image, media influence and eating attitude are significantly positive correlated with one another at p value of <0.01.

Conclusion: There is influence of media both on body image and eating attitude. The results of cronbach’s alpha reliability of all the scales used in this study suggest that these scales can reliably be used in our setup.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ali M, Sethi MR, Irfan M. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA ON PERCEPTION OF BODY IMAGE IN MEDICAL STUDENTS OF PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 30 [cited 2024 Jul. 13];35(2):75-9. Available from:
Original Article


Piran N, Levine MP, Steiner-Adair C. Preventing eating disorders: a handbook of interventions and special challenges. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel. 1999.

Hu P, Huang W, Bai R, Zhang F, Sharma M, Shi Z, et al. Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Related to Eating Out among University Students in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13(7): 696.

Yirga B, Gelaw YA, Derso T, Wassie MM. Disordered eating attitude and associated factors among high school adolescents aged 12–19 years in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2016; 9: 503.

Smolak L. Body image in children and adolescents: where do we go from here? Body Image. 2004; 1:15–28.

Ferrer-Garcia M, Gutierrez-Maldonado J. The use of virtual reality in the study, assessment, and treatment of body image in eating disorders and nonclinical samples: a review of the literature. Body Image. 2012;9(1):1–11.

Maxwell MA, Cole DA. Development and initial validation of the adolescent responses to body dissatisfaction measure. Psychol Assess. 2012; 24(3):721.

McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA, Finemore J. The role of puberty, media and popularity with peers on strategies to increase weight, decrease weight and increase muscle tone among adolescent boys and girls. J Psychosom Res. 2002;52(3):145–53.

Kenny U, OMalley-Keighran M, Molcho M, Kelly C. Peer Influences on Adolescent Body Image: Friends or Foes? J Adol Res. 2017; 32(6):768-799.

Singh MM, Parsekar SS, Bhumika TV. Body image, eating disorders and role of media among Indian adolescents. J Ind Assoc Child Adol Ment Health. 2016;12(1): 9-35.

Gondoli DM, Corning AF, Salafia EHB, Bucchianeri MM, Fitzsimmons EE. Heterosocial involvement, peer pressure for thinness, and body dissatisfaction among young adolescent girls. Body Image. 2011;8(2):143–8

Cash TF, Fleming EC, Alindogan J, Steadman L, Whitehead A. Beyond body image as a trait: The development and validation of the Body Image States Scale. Eat Disord. 2002(2); 10: 103-13.

Garner DM, Olmsted MP, Bohr Y, Garfinkel PE. The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychol Med. 1982; 12(4):871-8.

Thompson JK, van den Berg P, Roehrig M, Guarda AS, Heinberg LJ. The socio-cultural attitudes towards appearance scale-3 (SATAQ-3): development and validation. Int J Eat Disord. 2004; 35(3): 293-304.

O’Reilly I. Social media and its associations with body satisfaction, exercise and eating habits on undergraduate students. Thesis. 2018.

Tiggemann M, Williamson S. The effect of exercise on body satisfaction and self-esteem as a function of gender and age. Sex Rol. 2000; 43(1):119-27.

Prichard I, Tiggemann M. Objectification in fitness centers: Self-objectification, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in aerobic instructors and aerobic participants. Sex Rol. 2005; 53(1): 19-28.

Prichard I, Tiggemann M. Relations among exercise type, self-objectification, and body image in the fitness center environment: The role of reasons for exercise. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2008; 9(6), 855-66.

Alireza FN, Hossein KH, Bahram PG, Alizadeh M, Rouzitalab T. Eating disorders risk and its relation to self-esteem and body image in Iranian university students of medical sciences. Eat Weight Disord. 2016; 21(4): 597-605. doi: 10.1007/s40519-016-0283-7.

Pritchard M. Disordered eating in undergraduates: Does gender role orientation influence men and women the same way. Sex Rol. 2008; 59(3): 282-9

Edman JL, Yates A, Aruguete MS, DeBord KA. Negative emotion and disordered eating among obese college students. Eati Behav. 2005; 6(4): 308- 17.

McCabe MP, Ricciardelli LA. A prospective study of pressures from parents, peers, and the media on extreme weight change behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. Behav Res Ther. 2005; 43(5): 653-68.

Shahi VK, Kohli N. Body image attitudes and perception among college students. IAHWA Int J Soc Sci. 2019; 7(5): 1263-7.

Uchôa FNM, Uchôa NM, Daniele TMC, Lustosa RP, Garrido ND, Deana NF, et al. Influence of the Mass Media and Body Dissatisfaction on the Risk in Adolescents of Developing Eating Dis¬orders. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16(9): 1508. doi: 10.3390/ ijerph16091508

Benuto L, Haboush A, Jones-Forrester S. Compensatory efforts for body dissatisfaction: Some gender and ethnic differences. New School Psychol Bull. 2007; 5(2):19-25.

Paxton SJ, Wertheim EH, Gibbons K, Szmukler GI, Hillier L, Petrovich JL. Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys. J Youth Adolesc. 1991; 20(3): 361-79.

Holland G, Tiggemann M. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes. Body image. 2016; 17: 100-110

Li NP, Smith AR, Griskevicius V, Cason MJ, Bryan A. Intrasexual competition and eating restriction in heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Evol Hum Behav. 2010; 31(5): 365-72.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>