Schwartz's dictum of "NO acid - on ulcer", having stood for so long probably has now to be modified to "No Helicobacter Pylori - on ulcer" to incorporate modern concepts of peptic ulcer disease. It has now been established beyond reasonable doubt that helicobacter pylori is the main aetiological agent contributing to the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. this concept has revolutionized the clinical approach to peptic ulcer disease. Peptic ulcer can now be more effectively cured by a single course of antibiotic therapy rather than continuous suppression of acid secretion. Such a view of ulcer pathogenesis and treatment has been endorsed by the recent recommendations of the consensus Development conference of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the Unite states, which recommends that all helicobacter pylori infected peptic ulcer pateitns should receive antimicrobial therapy.