Laser 1. Basic principles

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Shad Muhammad

Abstract

Laser is an acronym for light Amplification by stimulated Emission of Radiation. The underlying process for stimulated emission, was first proposed by Albert Einstein in 1917. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physical. Arthur Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes in their 1958 patent application. The patent was granted but was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. in 1960  the American physicist Theodore Maiman observed the first laser action in solid ruby.

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1.
Muhammad S. Laser 1. Basic principles. J Postgrad Med Inst [Internet]. 2011 Sep. 6 [cited 2023 Jan. 29];11(2). Available from: https://www.jpmi.org.pk/index.php/jpmi/article/view/571
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Review Article

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