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in liver cirrhosis patients in a teaching hospital.
Methodology: A descriptive study was carried out from April 2013 to May
2014, in the Department of Medicine, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. The
study included 130 patients with liver cirrhosis. Hyponatremia was identified
among these. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was diagnosed and graded according
to the West Haven classification into four grades. For data entry and analysis,
SPSS version 21.0 was utilized. Spearman rank test was used for determining
the relationship of hyponatremia and severity of hepatic encephalopathy.
Results: Of the 130 patients, males were 76 (58.5%) and females were 54
(41.5%). Mean age of study patients was 55.52 ±10.144 years. Hyponatremia
was present in 48 (36.9%) patients. Mild Hyponatremia was present in 12 (9.2%),
Moderate in 28 (21.5%) and Severe in 8 (6.2%) patients. Hepatic encephalopathy
was present in 88 (67.7%) patients. Hepatic encephalopathy grade I was
present in 27 (20.8%), grade II in 31 (23.8 %), grade III in 16 (12.3 %), and grade IV in 14 (10.8%) patients. In 48 patients with hyponatremia, 42 were found to have HE (r =0.32, p value <0.001). Correlation of severity of hyponatremia with
grades of HE showed (r =0.33, p value <0.001).
Conclusion: Hyponatremia was found with increased frequency in patients with
cirrhosis liver. The relationship of hyponatremia with frequency and severity of
hepatic encephalopathy was statistically significant.
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